Is obesity a healthy practice to should sensationalized by an "enlightened" culture. Did you seriously just cite Sex and the City as if it were a documentary of some kind on female sexuality? I hate even having to type the words, but: You do realize those women are characters, right? Their failures were contrived by a group of writers who probably harbor the same little grain of regressive conservative thinking that most people in this country do when it comes to the idea of women having sex.
Who knows if it's improbable? Cross cultural studies would be useful to take a look at different forms of casual sex in places less puritanical than the U. The "sexual revolution" wasn't so long ago, and women are still shamed and derided from all angles of society for wanting sex, for how they want sex, for how often or how little they want sex, and on and on and on.
There are many more social reasons than biological ones for why women experience casual sex less I foresee that gap fading eventually, but not any faster for all the articles pulled out of thin air to make it a contentious issue whether women even like this or that kind of sex.
Paternalism at its finest to take a behavior many women partake in and then ask if they, despite doing it en masse, are even biologically capable of enjoying it. S never knew that. I have been following the debate of casual sex and women and searched for some genuine and useful advise and feedback.
What I run into is mostly American websites and the research that has been conducted is primarily on college aged young adults and the "hook up" culture. Women have been having casual sex in all times, but it has been condemned by society and therefore kept under the "blankets". I am a mature woman of 45y, with 4 kids. I have been single for 1.
I only had had 1 boyfriend before marrying. I have done my mourning, signed the divorce agreement, worked on my self spiritually in prayer, meditation and with my minister.
Emotionally I am stable and fulfilled, I have supportive friends, family and my children. Physically I am in great shape, healthy and fit. I work full time and my economy is in order. I am missing sex!
Of course I can masturbate to relief my sexual needs and I do release tension by my "own hand". It is a poor substitute though to real sexual interaction with another human being.
Kissing, caressing and making out, feeling another body next to yours and having the oxytocin release: Modern research reveals that it happens to men too, not only women!
I just put that oxytocin into good use cuddling my children, since mommy is on cloud nine after a night with some great "no strings attached" sex. I have no time or space in my life at this point to commit to a relationship. I am discreet, I am safe. Condom is a must. I do not leave my home number or address. I am ready to take the risk of a brief emotional attachment, actually that is one of my requirements. If there is no feeling of "connection" emotionally, physically, spiritually I do not "hook up" with the guy.
The great thing is that men are also looking for that connection! The guys I have met are not looking for brainless banging. They want to discuss life, relationships, religion, spirituality, dreams, passions Both know it is a none commitment thing, we meet and we part.
Hopefully both parties have had an expanding experience. I feel blessed to have shared that moment with them and my life is richer and my pussy is tender from hours of great sex and multiple orgasms!!!!
So girl, please do take responsibility to cater for your own needs. If you are honest with yourself and your partner and not trying to cover up alternative motives, go for it. There are men that are looking for a great experience with a mature, assertive sexy lady that they can connect with and share a night or two of pleasure, no strings attached This article repeats the same bullshit assumptions I keep seeing about women and casual sex.
I am 37 and single. I have mostly been single for my whole life, although I ended a 5-year relationship almost a year ago. I never have had a problem with it. It is a godsend! I have physical needs just like any man, and like filling them with a little variety, thank you very much. The issue is with expectations: If you both just want to have a little fun, what's the harm in that? As long as both people realize what the deal is, it's great. I agree that many women can do it.
And it is also possible that there are generational differences. I have several female friends Europe, different countries, around yrs who went through an NSA sex phase for different reasons. Some were after long, abusive or unhappy relationships, some were left by their partner. From my part, I only went into a relationship with the knowledge that the guy is not for me and that this will end rather sooner than later. I felt strongly attracted, and the guy did not lie at any stage, no false hopes for future together etc.
Nevertheless, even when I entered, I knew it will be painful when it ends. And it was 3 months later. I am a bonding type of person, want to know my partner intimately and share my life with him, so no way will I do NSA sex. For some, just the fact, that the guy was clearly not interested in them as a person, but more like a sex object, caused them to feel used regardless of their consent even if sex was physically satisfying for them.
I haven't read the above article regarding male oxytocin release during sex, but in another one earlier I did read that the testosterone if released in large amount will counteract the released oxytocin - and hence certain males will not bond via sex whereas women do not have this "defense".
Stereotypes are not the full picture, I agree. And for the same reason I also do not like some men writing about their need for casual sex as a generalised, all men's dream of thing.
Non-functioning, boring, sexless, etc. PUA community using tools of a sociopathic narcissist's mindset to basically rape women some using covert hypnosis, young, gullible, undereducated, psychologically troubled etc.
The difference I see between this and roofying someone, that with the drug it is more provable that abuse happened. One of the terms in PUA lingo clearly describes this: Some PUA gurus after a while get more chilled and end up in monogamous relationships but by then they contributed to tremendous abuse directly and indirectly for female victims as well as their customers. Looking at Maslow's hierarchy, sex is a fundamental.
Looking at health-focused research, sex is healthy and necessary. What do you do if you are alone? After one year with no one-on-one sex, I decided to try a casual arrangement. From the first, it was wonderful.
There are no undercurrents, and each of us can get out at any time, no questions asked. I am very happy. I am 54 and he is If women can be choosy about the height, physical appearance, and wealth of their casual sex partners, why shouldn't men be choosy about the past sexual conduct or "morals" of their potential long-term relationship partners?
The so-called "double standard" works both ways. The simple fact is, women these days have more options and more choices than men. That's why heterosexual bars and clubs have "ladies night" instead of "men's night".
The women, not the men, get to do the choosing. At closing time on ladies night, a group of average, slightly shy, somewhat short men are sitting alone at the bar while the women have left with all the big, tall, square jawed athletic looking guys with big feet- the same guys who went home with different women after the last ladies night. That's fine- we all should have the freedom to make our own choices, but we also have to face the consequences of our actions.
I would like to point out that young boys don't dream about growing up and marrying girls for who they are sexual partner number 25 any more than daddy wants his little girl to grow up to be a porn star. And no amount of hypocritical, self-righteous "feminism"- short of a totalitarian "Brave New World"- is going to change that dynamic.
While I don't approve of that group's behavior, I do think that what they are doing cannot in any way be compared to "rape" as you suggested. Lying maybe, but rape, no. What you are implying is that women are too stupid to make their own choices or to see through childish head games.
As someone who believes in the mental equality even superiority of women, I find your suggestion appalling. If a woman feels "used" afterwards, perhaps that's a sign that she should be more choosy, or even delay a sexual involvement for some time until she's sure about the man's intentions. I'ts sad that women are falling for that sort of thing, but they made a choice, so live and learn. I think a lot of frustrated guys who lack self confidence, good looks, or stature are likely to try the "PUA" methodology, because they've felt rejected or hurt by women, and also they see the blatant hypocrisy in women's sexual behavior.
By hypocrisy, I mean the way women promote the idea of a finding a loving, committed partner i. The popularity of "PUA" tricks shouldn't be any more shocking than that of "penis enlargement" gimmicks which don't work; these industries prey upon gullible men with deep seated insecurities, fears which are often amplified by women's actual behavior.
The first glaringly problematic comment the author made, is that "in my personal experience, most women cannot have casual sex without feeling hurt if the other person doesn't call back and has no intention of doing so.
It is obvious from that sentence, that the author is butt-hurt about a guy Feeling ashamed of herself, she decided to extrapolate her experience to mean "most women must feel this way since that is how I feel. I do not understand how one author's personal butt-hurt made it into a renowned magazine about Psychology as a general guideline. I assure you, as a man, it is equally obnoxious to hook up with a girl you like and have her never show up again or call you back.
It is a silly double standard to assume that women do not do this to men as well, to assume women do not sport-fuck you for a notch on their belt, because many of them will and you will not know about it until afterwards.
I also take issue with the whole "if she has to drink to have sex, maybe she shouldn't be having sex. People drink to lower inhibitions and get laid. It just happens that way. Sex is fun when it's thrilling and has that "is this going to happen?
A drunk man's inhibitions are not lowered any less than a drunk woman's, and for this reason I say I believe hooking up even when there is some form of attachment can be quite possible and, not only that, but very fulfilling.
I am a young single mother and I have found that most of my relationships since my daughter was born, have been very short lived and meaningless. There is one person who has become both, a friend, and a lover.
He happens to be my daughter's father. We spend time as a family, but want nothing to do with a serious relationship between the two of us. We are simply two people who have a child together that occasionally share in a physically gratifying arrangement. If either one of is were to want to settle, we are more than welcome to walk away, and if not, we are both perfectly fine in our situation.
We can also feel free to hook up with other people if we so choose. It takes away the awkwardness of having to share ourselves with new people if we didn't want to, plus we both know what each other likes and it is just easy and fun. The main problem with this article and many similar articles is the basic misinterpretation of oxytocin release.
Yes, oxytocin is released during orgasm and is a factor for women becoming attached to men. However, that attachment is a sexual attachment NOT an emotional attachment. Having an orgasm, will make a woman want to have sex with that man again but it won't cause her to suddenly fall in love with him, want a committed relationship with him if she wasn't already , or become emotionally attached. The main problem is that there's still an underlying assumption that women become emotionally attached from sex.
As a result, what boys and girls are taught about sexual behavior and research on how men and women react to sex will almost always be interpreted from a biased viewpoint. An analogy would be if a crime was committed and the police automatically assumed from the start one man we'll call him Pete was the perp.
This would result in the police solely focusing on Pete, interpreting the evidence as proof of Pete's guilt ie the perp was a man I am 32 and female and have had 4 long term relationships 3 to 5 years though I really don't know why. I have zero desire to get married or have kids, never have. When I am single, which I am now, I have tons of fuck buddies and nsa sex, and they almost never have alcohol or drugs involved.
Ok, the occasional alcohol since bars are a good place to meet guys who want to hook up, but I don't get wasted. All of my relationships ended because I can't form proper emotional bonds to boyfriends and can't give them the love they need. I had to break it off with them. So since I need sex I find men who I am completely honest with about my intentions: I may not want to see you again ever and if I do it'll just be for sex, I don't cuddle, I really don't want a relationship, and I'll be fucking other guys.
I've only had one guy turn me down and we had already had sex a few times, it just took him a while to decide he didn't like that. I never feel ashamed or dirty or like what I did was wrong in any way. I also never feel any attachment to these guys. I've considered that I may be a sex addict, but I'm always faithful while in a relationship.
Just one girls experience. I can't seem to find anyone else with similar experiences. I have an experience to be in no obligations relationship. I ended it in one month as it was impossible to keep myself completely dis attached emotionally from a man I liked and it was clear he was indifferent except for pure sex. Both of us are mature adults having adult kids; we have our financial independence, yet, it was weird for me to agree acting like I was no human.
I can honestly say that when I have ex with a man, I never want to see him again. If I like a man and we get along great, I don't feel a sexual attraction to him. If I do end up having sex with him, I never have anything to do with him again. It ruins our connection as far as I am concerned. I love sex, don't get wrong but it doesn't evoke any emotions from me. It doesn't create a "bond" or any other connection to the man for me. To really enjoy sex, it has to be with a man I have only met once, maybe twice and then once we have committed the act I can't bear to think of seeing him again.
I forgot to include in my original statement that I also cannot abide the "cuddling", the "afterglow" nonsense. For me it's purely; Do the deed and get out. I prefer to meet where I control the fact that I immediately leave.
I never let a man know where I live. I know, the number is shocking and not something I'm particularly proud of but neither am I ashamed by it. Yes is my answer, they can and the reason why my number is so high is because it's far too easy for women to.
I can only speak for myself but I wouldn't say I'm a 'typical' female. I have a drink problem for one. Never know when to stop and have blackouts. Half the time I don't even remember how I 'pulled' the guy. I'm shy and awkward around men when sober but when drunk become this horny, seductive and flirty may I say it nympho vixen. I don't sleep with men so they 'like' me.
I do it because being sexually desired is intoxicating and alcohol makes me friggin horny. I'm a complete hedonist. I'm also terrified of commitment and intimacy. Alcohol may also serve as an excuse, purposely consumed as a strategy to protect the self from having to justify hookup behavior later Paul, This paints a picture very different from popular representations of alcohol and substance use in hookups, which are often handled with a detached air of humor.
A Journal Chronicle Books, is playfully described by the publisher: Although alcohol and drugs are likely a strong factor, it is still largely unclear what role individual differences play in shaping decisions to engage in hookups.
Other factors may include media consumption, personality, and biological predispositions. Garcia, MacKillop, et al. This suggests that biological factors that contribute to motivating the different contexts of sexual behavior for both men and women may be fairly sexually monomorphic Garcia, Reiber, et al.
This may, in some cases, point to fairly stable individual differences. The discrepancy between behaviors and desires, particularly with respect to social—sexual relationships, has dramatic implications for physical and mental health.
Despite widespread allure, uncommitted sexual behavior has been shown to elicit a pluralistic ignorance response promoting individuals to engage in behaviors regardless of privately feeling uncomfortable with doing so Lambert et al. Misperception of sexual norms is one potential driver for people to behave in ways they do not personally endorse. In a replication and extension of Lambert et al.
Hookup scenarios may include feelings of pressure and performance anxiety. In Paul et al. Note that this study asked participants about typical hookups, and although this was informative for general patterns, it does not capture specific factors influencing specific individual scenarios.
However, this same study found that feelings differed during compared to after hookups: An individual history of hookup behavior has been associated with a variety of mental health factors. In a recent study of young adults followed across a university semester, those participants with more depressive symptoms and greater feelings of loneliness who engaged in penetrative sex hookups subsequently reported a reduction in both depressive symptoms and feelings of loneliness Owen et al.
At the same time, those participants who reported less depressive symptoms and fewer feelings of loneliness who engaged in penetrative sex hookups subsequently reported an increase in both depressive symptoms and feelings of loneliness Owen et al. In another study, among sexually experienced individuals, those who had the most regret after uncommitted sex also had more symptoms of depression than those who had no regret Welsh et al. In the first study to investigate the issue of self-esteem and hookups, both men and women who had ever engaged in an uncommitted sexual encounter had lower overall self-esteem scores compared to those without uncommitted sexual experiences Paul et al.
The potential causal direction of the relationship between self-esteem and uncommitted sex is yet unclear Paul et al. Hookups can result in guilt and negative feelings. The percentage of women expressing guilt was more than twice that of men. This is consistent with a classic study by Clark and Hatfield , which demonstrated that men are much more likely than women to accept casual sex offers from attractive confederates.
Conley replicated and extended this finding, demonstrating that, under certain conditions of perceived comfort, the gender differences in acceptance of casual sex is diminished. Possibly contributing to findings on gender differences in thoughts of worry, in a sample of undergraduate students, more women than men leaned toward a relationship outcome following a hookup. It is possible that regret and negative consequences result from individuals attempting to negotiate multiple desires. It is likely that a substantial portion of emerging adults today are compelled to publicly engage in hookups while desiring both immediate sexual gratification and more stable romantic attachments.
Not all hookup encounters are necessarily wanted or consensual. In a sample of college students, participants noted that a majority of their unwanted sex occurred in the context of hookups: Even more worrisome, a proportion of hookups also involve nonconsensual sex.
In a study by Lewis et al. Unwanted and nonconsensual sexual encounters are more likely occurring alongside alcohol and substance use. A number of studies have included measures of regret with respect to hookups, and these studies have documented the negative feelings men and women may feel after hookups.
In a large web-based study of 1, undergraduate students, participants reported a variety of consequences: A vast majority of both sexes indicated having ever experienced regret. There were few sex differences in reasons for regret, and better quality sex reduced the degree of regret reported Fisher et al. It appears the method of asking participants whether and when they had experienced regret i. On average, both men and women appear to have higher positive affect than negative affect following a hookup.
Those with positive attitudes toward hookups and approval of sexual activity show the greatest positive affect Lewis et al. However, there are also negative consequences experienced by both sexes. Two types of sexual encounters were particularly predictive of sexual regret: Among a sample of 1, individuals who had experienced a previous one-night stand, Campbell showed that most men and women have combinations of both positive and negative affective reactions following this event.
There are substantial individual differences in reactions to hookups not accounted for by gender alone. The gap between men and women is notable, and demonstrates an average sex difference in affective reactions.
Yet, this finding also conflicts with a strict sexual strategies model because more than half of women were glad they engaged in a hookup and they were not in the context of commandeering extrapartner genes for offspring. With respect to scripts, although presumably being sexually agentic e. Although the direction of the sex differences is in agreement with the evolutionary model, that nearly a quarter of women report primarily positive reactions is inconsistent with a truly sex-specific short-term mating psychology and with discourse messages of uncommitted sex being simply pleasurable.
Also inconsistent with both of these theoretical models is that a quarter of men experience negative reactions. Taken alone, neither a biological nor social model is sufficient to explain these individual differences. Some research has considered the interactions of sex and individual differences in predicting hookup behavior. In this regard, there are sex differences in cognitive processes, but one cannot necessarily presume that the sexes vary fundamentally in their behavioral potentials; rather, they vary in their decision-making, consistent with other evolutionary models.
It is still unclear the degree to which hookups may result in positive reactions, and whether young men and young women are sexually satisfied in these encounters. Fine has argued that sex negativity is even more pronounced for women and the possibility of desire seems to be missing from the sexual education of young women.
Armstrong, England, and Fogarty addressed sexual satisfaction in a large study of online survey responses from 12, undergraduates from 17 different colleges. In this study, men reported receiving oral sex both in hookups and in relationships much more than women. In both contexts, men also reached orgasm more often than women. A challenge to the contemporary sexual double standard would mean defending the position that young women and men are equally entitled to sexual activity, sexual pleasure, and sexual respect in hookups as well as relationships.
To achieve this, the attitudes and practices of both men and women need to be confronted. Men should be challenged to treat even first hookup partners as generously as the women they hook up with treat them. Taken together, this points to a need for further and more diverse attention to the impact of hookups on the physical and mental health of individuals, as recommended by Heldman and Wade Further, more attention is needed on potential positive aspects of hooking up, such as promoting sexual satisfaction and mutual comfort and enjoyment see Armstrong et al.
Hookups are part of a popular cultural shift that has infiltrated the lives of emerging adults throughout the Westernized world. The past decade has witnessed an explosion in interest in the topic of hookups, both scientifically and in the popular media. Research on hookups is not seated within a singular disciplinary sphere; it sits at the crossroads of theoretical and empirical ideas drawn from a diverse range of fields, including psychology, anthropology, sociology, biology, medicine, and public health.
The growth of our understanding of the hookup phenomenon is likely predicated on our ability to integrate these theoretical and empirical ideas into a unified whole that is capable of explaining the tremendous variety in human sexual expression.
Both evolutionary and social forces are likely facilitating hookup behavior, and together may help explain the rates of hookups, motivations for hooking up, perceptions of hookup culture, and the conflicting presence and lack of sex differences observed in various studies. Several scholars have suggested that shifting life-history patterns may be influential in shaping hookup patterns.
Together, the research reviewed here can help us better understand the nature of uncommitted sex today. It is worth noting, however, that several shortcomings in our knowledge continue to impede the understanding of hookup behavior. Much of the research asking participants about previous hookup relationships may therefore be biased due to recall.
The literature reviewed here primarily focuses on heterosexual hookups among emerging adults, with some researchers not controlling for sexual orientation some purposefully and others restricting to exclusively heterosexual samples. Future hookup research should venture into the MSM literature to explore patterns of casual sex among these populations to understand other sexual subcultures where uncommitted sexual behavior is prevalent.
Moreover, there exists little published literature on the hookup patterns among lesbians and women who have sex with women. Understanding hookups during the critical stage of late adolescent development and young adulthood is paramount for protecting and promoting healthy sexuality and healthy decision-making among emerging adults. Of the varied experiences and health risks young men and young women will experience, perhaps none are as pervasive and widely experienced as engagement in and desire for romantic attachments and experiences with sexual activity.
This review suggests that uncommitted sex, now being explored from a variety of disciplinary and theoretical perspectives, is best understood from a biopsychosocial perspective that incorporates recent research trends in human biology, reproductive and mental health, and sexuality studies. Both popular scripts and predictions from evolutionary theory suggest that a reproductive motive may influence some sexual patterns, such as motivation and regret following uncommitted sex.
However, patterns of casual sex among gay men highlight inadequacies of the reproductive motive and suggest that further theorizing is necessary before a satisfactory evolutionarily informed theory can be established. We thank Melanie Hill for valuable discussion and feedback on an earlier draft of this review. We also thank Maryanne Fisher and Catherine Salmon for helpful editorial feedback.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Author manuscript; available in PMC Jun 1. Garcia , Chris Reiber , Sean G. Massey , and Ann M. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Justin R.
See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Cultural Shifts in Dating Hookup culture has emerged from more general social shifts taking place during the last century. Representation of Hookups in Popular Culture Contemporary popular culture is now ripe with examples that depict and often encourage sexual behavior, including premarital and uncommitted sex.
Hookup Venues Among college students, hookups have been reported in a variety of college settings. Theoretical Frameworks for Hookup Research An interdisciplinary biopsychosocial model can synthesize traditionally disconnected theoretical perspectives and provide a more holistic understanding of hookup culture. In their comparison of theoretical models, they found that attachment fertility theory posits that short-term mating and other forms of mating outside of pair-bonds are natural byproducts of a suite of attachment and care-giving mechanisms… selected for in human evolutionary history to ultimately enable men and women to seek, select, create, and maintain a pair-bond… pointing to an increasingly coherent picture of the underlying biological and chemical systems involved… that generally operate similarly for men and women.
Prevalence of Alcohol and Drugs In addition to sexual risk-taking, in terms of low condom use, another issue of concern involving hookups is the high comorbidity with substance use. Hookup Culture and Psychological Well-Being The discrepancy between behaviors and desires, particularly with respect to social—sexual relationships, has dramatic implications for physical and mental health. Hookup Regret A number of studies have included measures of regret with respect to hookups, and these studies have documented the negative feelings men and women may feel after hookups.
Conclusion Hookups are part of a popular cultural shift that has infiltrated the lives of emerging adults throughout the Westernized world. Contributor Information Justin R. Alcohol and dating risk factors for sexual assault among college women. Psychology of Women Quarterly. The homosexualization of America: The Americanization of the homosexual.
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